“Use a VersaClimber or take a VersaClimber class. These machines are still not that common, but in my opinion they are far more effective for weight loss than other forms of cardio. They require you to use a large portion of your muscles and it’s functionally better for you than other forms of cardio like spinning. Everyone is talking about Rise Nation in LA at the moment as they are the first dedicated VersaClimbing studio. There’s no harder cardio workout I have tried. To lose fat you have to put in the work. — Dan Roberts, celebrity trainer and creator of Methodology X
Conversely, the more food in front of you, the more you’ll eat—regardless of how hungry you are. So instead of using regular dinner plates that range these days from 10 to 14 inches (making them look empty if they’re not heaped with food), serve your main course on salad plates (about 7 to 9 inches wide). Instead of 16-ounce glasses and oversized coffee mugs, return to the old days of 8-ounce glasses and 6-ounce coffee cups.

A low-carb diet could go a long way to help you shed fat and lose weight. But you don’t necessarily have to ditch your carbs if you want to know how to lose weight. Include more whole grains in your diet to help you burn belly fat faster. According to researchers at Tufts University, consuming three or more servings of whole grains on a daily basis, could reduce as much as 10 per cent of visceral body fat. If too much of visceral fat is accumulated in your body, it could increase your risk of chronic diseases like heart disease, diabetes and high blood pressure.
A nice carbonated beverage can hit the spot when you’re thirsty. But you’ll have to skip the bubbles while you’re on a middle-shrinking mission—nutritionist Palin ski says the gas will make your belly poof up right away. Drink plain old tap water to stay hydrated—and make sure you get at least eight glasses a day. The special ingredients aren’t just there for flavor, either: The ginger helps calm and soothe your GI tract.

“Even though a smart diet is key, exercise can help boost your body’s metabolism to shed fat. Through health care providers often recommend brisk walking or jogging, these exercises may not help you see the results you want. Instead, try interval training. Here’s how: While performing your usual walking or jogging routine, intersperse faster paces periodically throughout your workout. In other words, you may be walking at your normal pace for 2 minutes and then begin a slow jog or fast walk for 1 minute. After the faster speed, return to your slower speed and continue this alternation for 20 minutes. Research shows this type of exercise can stimulate metabolism, melt fat and push your fitness status to the next level.” — Dr. Sean M. Wells, DPT, PT, OCS, ATC/L, CSCS Owner and PT, Naples Personal Training, LLC

You already know to get your dressing on the side because restaurants tend to drown salads with too much. (Learn more ways a salad can make you fat.) But instead of pouring it on or even dipping the leaves in, do the “fork dip.” Stick the tongs of an empty fork into the dish of dressing before skewering any salad. You’ll be surprised by how much flavor you’ll get, but with way fewer calories. Next, check out some more weird ways to lose weight that sound odd, but totally work.
Wheatgrass has a high concentration of iron, magnesium, calcium, amino acids, vitamins C, A and E, B12, B6 and chlorophyll. These vitamins and minerals provide many therapeutic benefits. Consuming wheatgrass can rid the digestive system of harmful bacteria and cleanse the body of toxins. It also cleanses the colon and can help in the treatment of joint pain, ulcerative colitis, skin infections and can even prevent diabetes. No wonder it is regarded as a superfood!
To prep his patients for success, Dr. Seltzer tells them to plan around a large evening meal by eating a lighter breakfast and lunch—NBD since most people who eat a meal before bed tend to wake up feeling relatively full, he says. Research suggests balanced bedtime meals may also promote steady next-day blood sugar levels, which also helps with appetite regulation.

Few things are more discouraging to someone on a weight-loss plan than the oft-cited statistic that 95% of people who lose weight will regain it within a few years. The difficulty in sticking with a long-term weight-maintenance plan is one of the main reasons that weight-loss programs fail. To uncover clues to successful weight loss, researchers have been collecting information on people who have lost weight and successfully kept it off for many years. This project, known as the National Weight Control Registry (NWCR), records what these people did to achieve their goals.
23. Do Yoga 1x Per Week – Including yoga at least once per week, either taking a class, following a yoga dvd, or even following a yoga class on audio can help you decrease stress and increase weight loss. Yoga is associated with increased mindfulness, which can help you make better food, exercise, and sleep decisions.28 All you need is a 10-20 minute yoga flow to reap the benefits of this exercise form.
Often, even small changes in your diet can help you lose weight. For instance, just replacing an unhealthy snack every day with fruits and vegetables, or eliminating an evening snack, can result in weight loss, said Katherine Tallmadge, a registered dietitian and an op-ed contributor to Live Science. "If people make minor changes that they can live with, it's more likely that they can lose the weight and keep it off," Tallmadge said. [ 4 Calorie-Cutting Tips That Won't Leave You Hungry]

Want to lose that belly fat? In your dreams! Seriously, though: a good night’s sleep is one of the best ways to get rid of that extra fat around your waist for good. Among the 60,000 women participating in the Nurses’ Health Study, those who snoozed for fewer than five hours a night were at the greatest risk of becoming obese and gaining 30 or more pounds over the course of the 16-year study period when compared to those who slept for seven or more hours.


we are constantly told that the EU does not affect the sovereignty of a nation, yet every day we hear more threats and we realise now long thier tentacles are as we try and entangle ourselves from them thier grip.The EU is not worried about losing the uk as a member of the club, they are now beginning to panic about losing our cash. If it takes tarries to bring equality to trading conditions yo the detriment of Germany then so be it.

I’m in favor of any program that promotes whole foods over hyper-processed fare, and this is one thing the popular diet plans can agree on. Overly processed foods have been linked to weight gain, perhaps because many unhealthy packaged foods (think: potato chips, ice cream, frozen pizza, cookies and the like) lack the fiber found in many whole foods, including vegetables. Fiber helps fill us up, and research suggests that by simply adding more fiber to your menu, you can lose weight nearly as well as a more complicated approach. Consistently choosing whole foods is one way to do this.
85. Focus On Following Your Plan, Not Losing Weight – Dieting and focusing solely on weight loss have been found to be big predictors of weight regain.67 Instead, focus on following a workout and nutrition plan. Define your self-worth in ways other than how you look or how much you weigh. Focus on following your plan and your workout goals, like getting stronger, running faster, and being a better athlete overall.
Fermented foods: These enhance the function of good bacteria while inhibiting the growth of bad bacteria. Sauerkraut, kimchi, kefir, yogurt, tempeh, and miso all contain good amounts of probiotics, which help to increase good bacteria. Researchers have studied kimchi widely, and study results suggest that it has anti-obesity effects. Similarly, studies have shown that kefir may help to promote weight loss in overweight women.
Harvie, M. N., Pegington, M., Mattson, M. P., Frystyk, J., Dillon, B., Evans, G., … Howell, A. (2011, May). The effects of intermittent or continuous energy restriction on weight loss and metabolic disease risk markers: A randomized trial in young overweight women. International Journal of Obesity (London), 35(5), 714–727. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3017674/

44. Make Your Comfort Foods Healthier – There are so many creative ways to make your favorite comfort foods healthier. Do a little research to find healthy and delicious substitutes for your favorite comfort foods and desserts. Everyone has non-negotiables, or things they are unwilling to give up no matter what. See if you can find a healthy alternative. Here are some recipes you can try: French fries, Frozen grapes, Frozen Banana Ice Cream, & Pizza.
If not bothersome I’d like to ask you a specific question that I don’t believe I’ve seen on your website. I know the sole factor of fat loss is calorie deficit and am happy with the weight loss I’ve achieved in the past 9 weeks. I will attend a friend’s wedding for a week next week and don’t imagine I will be able to maintain my current diet. I’ve read from other sources discussing how you should “SLOWLY” increase your calorie consumption to avoid your body storing fat. I will certainly not eat 4,000 calories during my trip but my question will be if it’s OK for me to jump back to “maintenance level” calorie consumption or you would recommend me doing “15% Deficit on Day 1, 10% Deficit on Day 2…etc.”?

Eat More Produce. Eating lots of low-calorie, high-volume fruits and vegetables crowds out other foods that are higher in fat and calories. Move the meat off the center of your plate and pile on the vegetables. Or try starting lunch or dinner with a vegetable salad or bowl of broth-based soup, suggests Barbara Rolls, PhD, author of The Volumetrics Eating Plan. The U.S. government's 2005 Dietary Guidelines suggest that adults get 7-13 cups of produce daily. Ward says that's not really so difficult: "Stock your kitchen with plenty of fruits and vegetables and at every meal and snack, include a few servings," she says. "Your diet will be enriched with vitamins, minerals, phytonutrients, fiber, and if you fill up on super-nutritious produce, you won't be reaching for the cookie jar."


This is ratio of weight in kilograms to the square of height in meters. This parameter helps doctors judge whether the person will suffer from heart disease or strokes. Those having a BMI of 25-29.9 are considered overweight and those with a BMI of 30 are considered obese. However, this parameter is not always accurate in measuring belly fat. In fact, you can measure your belly fat with a measuring tape in front of the mirror, and set your own targets to reduce belly fat. Looking at the mirror and checking regularly will motivate you to lose the unhealthy fat lining your abdomen.
Compare your portion sizes throughout the day to the recommended standards. For example, one serving of fruit is 1/2 cup or one small whole fruit, one serving of vegetables is one cup, one serving of grains is 1 oz or 1/2 of a cup, one serving of lean protein is 3 oz and one serving of low-fat dairy is one cup (milk and yogurt) or 2 oz of cheese.[5]
My repeated dieting eventually caught up with me, as this research would predict. When I was in graduate school and under a lot of stress, I started binge eating. I would finish a carton of ice cream or a box of saltines with butter, usually at 3 a.m. The urge to keep eating was intense, even after I had made myself sick. Fortunately, when the stress eased, I was able to stop. At the time, I felt terrible about being out of control, but now I know that binge eating is a common mammalian response to starvation.

Compare your portion sizes throughout the day to the recommended standards. For example, one serving of fruit is 1/2 cup or one small whole fruit, one serving of vegetables is one cup, one serving of grains is 1 oz or 1/2 of a cup, one serving of lean protein is 3 oz and one serving of low-fat dairy is one cup (milk and yogurt) or 2 oz of cheese.[5]


Belly fat, or visceral fat, is fat stored in and around your abdominal organs. It can increase your risks of cancer, high blood pressure, stroke, dementia, heart disease and diabetes.[1] You cannot lose large quantities of weight or excess body fat within one week - especially visceral or belly fat. To get healthier and lose the dangerous belly fat, you'll need to change your diet, exercise routine and lifestyle over a longer period of time. However, during a week you can start to make some great, health-promoting changes to your lifestyle.
A nice carbonated beverage can hit the spot when you’re thirsty. But you’ll have to skip the bubbles while you’re on a middle-shrinking mission—nutritionist Palin ski says the gas will make your belly poof up right away. Drink plain old tap water to stay hydrated—and make sure you get at least eight glasses a day. The special ingredients aren’t just there for flavor, either: The ginger helps calm and soothe your GI tract.
One easy trick if you're a pasta fan is to swap out white pasta for the wonderfully named courgetti (spaghetti made from spiralizing courgette). You’ll hardly notice the difference when you’re eating it, but you’ll be fuller for longer despite consuming fewer calories. When you consume fewer calories, your body can go to your fat reserves for energy, rather than just burning off the food you’ve eaten.  
Answer . \nAll of it. Starvation can lead to death, even though many other people have survived going without food for 30 days. If you are desperate to lose weight, start using your body. Go swimming as often as you can, ride your bicycle everywhere, dig ditches, climb hills, BURN CALORIES. Starving yourself can lead to permanent damage to your nervous system, major organs, and teeth. If you think that you will be more attractive if you lose a lot a of weight, remember that you will be so weak that you cannot walk, sit up, or carry out a conversation. And you are likely to end up in the hospital, which is not cheap.\n. \nPeople used to be thin because they didn't eat every time they turned around, and they had to work hard to survive. Try carrying a one gallon bucket of water 100 yards. Now, imagine doing that 20 or 30 times a day, every day. Don't eat until you are stuffed, don't worry about cleaning your plate, eat slowly, and when you feel full, stop. If you eat too fast, your body does not have a chance to tell you that it is full before you have overfilled it.\n. \nAvoid sugary treats and colas, fast food, and greasy chips. Peanut butter and jelly on whole wheat bread is a pretty good meal, along with some low-salt corn tortilla chips. Drink water with a meal, not milk, cola, or fruit juice.
The conclusion? Intermittent fasting was just as effective for weight loss as daily calorie restriction. So if you struggle with daily food restriction, fasting might be an easier way to dial back the amount you’re eating without feeling completely deprived. Read more in-depth about how intermittent fasting works (and if you’ll be able to stick to it) here.
There’s one thing to like about visceral fat: It yields fairly easily to aerobic exercise. Vaporizing calories via running, biking, swimming—anything that gets your heart rate up—is an effective way to whittle your middle. In fact, one 2011 study from Duke University Medical Center, published in the American Journal of Physiology, found the sweet spot: Jogging the equivalent of 12 miles a week was even more effective in reducing visceral fat than resistance training three times per week. However, both types of exercise were beneficial when it came to belly fat, the researchers say. (Don’t have time to hit the gym? Try these fun at-home cardio workouts if you’re in a pinch.)
Few things are more discouraging to someone on a weight-loss plan than the oft-cited statistic that 95% of people who lose weight will regain it within a few years. The difficulty in sticking with a long-term weight-maintenance plan is one of the main reasons that weight-loss programs fail. To uncover clues to successful weight loss, researchers have been collecting information on people who have lost weight and successfully kept it off for many years. This project, known as the National Weight Control Registry (NWCR), records what these people did to achieve their goals.
Face it, if you want to lose weight over the long haul, your best bet is to make sustainable, long-term lifestyle changes like the nine simple ones this woman made to shed 45 pounds and keep them off. But sometimes life comes at you fast and you need a fast solution. One smart lifestyle change is to eat plenty of veggies—especially for someone looking to lose weight. Vegetables are nutrient-packed and provide plenty of filling fiber with hardly any calories. Plus, non-starchy veggies have a high water content, so they hydrate you while filling you up—the perfect combination for weight loss.
A sedentary lifestyle is one of the major causes of occurrence of belly fat. If you don’t indulge in any physical activity, and spend most of the time sitting, watching T.V., reading, etc., it is known as a sedentary lifestyle. Lack of regular exercise, or not exercising at all can lead to fat storage around the belly area. In other words, being a couch potato will make you fat.

The reason we’re suggesting 45 minutes instead of the typical 30 as one of the ways to lose weight is that a Duke University study found that while 30 minutes of daily walking is enough to prevent weight gain in most relatively sedentary people, exercise beyond 30 minutes results in weight and fat loss. Burning an additional 300 calories a day with three miles of brisk walking (45 minutes should do it) could help you lose 30 pounds in a year without even changing how much you’re eating. If you need motivation, try these secrets of women who work out every day.

Finally, some chapters I have no problems with! Chapter 6 has some good advice on how to create and use a food diary, and not just to record what you're eating, but to find out what your bad habits are so you can start to recognize them and fix them. I'll be honest, I'm not even aware of the bad habits I have related to how I eat (not just what I eat) and this method is actually good advice on how to achieve it without shaming anyone or making assumptions and generalizations! Chapter 7 is all about stopping food cravings with some great advice. Chapter 8 provides some great advice of creating a physical activity habit (throwing the entire without working out part out the window, but hey, what's a little misleading advertising to get you to open the book. I mean, we already discovered that the whole title was a scam when the author promised to help you lose weight fast yet tells you not to lose weight fast). Chapter 9 provides some decent information about nutrition, though I think this is a far bigger topic than what could be covered in a short chapter of a book.
Just like being underweight isn't healthy, losing it too fast is unhealthy, too, especially if you're on an extreme calorie deficit. "The American College of Sports Medicine recommends one to two pounds of fat loss per week," said Jim White, RD, ACSM, owner of Jim White Fitness and Nutrition Studios. Although people who weigh more can lose weight quicker, if you are feeling tired, dizzy, or irritable, or dropping as much as five to 10 pounds a week, then you might be losing weight too fast.
STARVATION V.S. DIETING*** . BELIEVE IT OR NOT, YOU lose LESS weight by not eating than you would if you ate! HOWEVER, you must follow some guidelines. FIRST, the not eating issue. The human body is a very smart machine. When you stop eating, your body goes into "starvation mode", not knowing when it will get food next. SO, your body slows down your metabolism, burning less calories and conserving energy. Your "fat burning furnace" goes into the survival mode, and burns off fat VERY SLOWLY (remember, your not giving your body food, so it must conserve as much as possible.) THEREFORE, the fastest way to lose weight is to eat often, like six times a day. HOWEVER, AND THIS IS A BIG HOWEVER, the meals must be very small and high quality, ie...no junk or fast food. GOOD calories, like protiens, complex carbohydrates (not simple sugars), fruits, vegetables, etc... AND, THIS IS A BIG AND, YOU MUST increase your exercise, and burn more calories. By eating small, healthful meals six times a day, your metabolism rate and "fat burning furnace" stay on "high speed", burning up calories and fat like crazy. Your TOTAL DAILY CALORIE INTAKE (ALL SIX MEALS) SHOULD ADD UP TO NO MORE THAN 2000 CALORIES. If you don't exercise like crazy, it should be even less calories. NOTE: EXERCISE LIKE CRAZY is not difficult. Incorporate exercise into every aspect of your day. EXAMPLES: EVERYONE goes to the store. When you park your car, park at the farthest parking space from the entrance. YOU DO NOT NEED TO SPEND $1000.00 FOR A HEALTH CLUB MEMBERSHIP, ONLY TO WALK ON A STAIRMASTER AND GO NOWHERE!!! Walk to the post office, walk to the store, walk, walk, walk!!! If you live in the country, walk the roads. If you desire safety, go MALL WALKING. WHEN you walk, don't just plug along; walk quickly and steadily. You can even walk up and down your porch stairs repeatedly (if you have stairs). If you really want to lose weight, stick to these suggestions and you can lose as much weight as you want! THERE IS NO EASY WAY, MAGIC PILL, DIET DRINK OR ANY OTHER CRAP THAT MAKES YOU DROP WEIGHT.! GOOD LUCK TO YOU!

If not bothersome I’d like to ask you a specific question that I don’t believe I’ve seen on your website. I know the sole factor of fat loss is calorie deficit and am happy with the weight loss I’ve achieved in the past 9 weeks. I will attend a friend’s wedding for a week next week and don’t imagine I will be able to maintain my current diet. I’ve read from other sources discussing how you should “SLOWLY” increase your calorie consumption to avoid your body storing fat. I will certainly not eat 4,000 calories during my trip but my question will be if it’s OK for me to jump back to “maintenance level” calorie consumption or you would recommend me doing “15% Deficit on Day 1, 10% Deficit on Day 2…etc.”?
One easy trick if you're a pasta fan is to swap out white pasta for the wonderfully named courgetti (spaghetti made from spiralizing courgette). You’ll hardly notice the difference when you’re eating it, but you’ll be fuller for longer despite consuming fewer calories. When you consume fewer calories, your body can go to your fat reserves for energy, rather than just burning off the food you’ve eaten.  

Grazing is a surprisingly good idea because it helps you avoid metabolic slowdown. "Your body will be tricked into thinking it's constantly eating, so it will never slow your metabolism down," explains Bauer. Aim for five small meals (200 to 500 calories) a day rather than three large ones. Also try not to go more than four hours without eating — if you eat breakfast at 7am, for example, have a snack at 10am, lunch at noon, another snack at 3pm and dinner at 7pm.

“Burpees are such a great way to activate multiple muscles, get the heart rate up and burn mega calories. In one single burpee, you work your legs, arms and abs and you also elevate the heart rate to increase cardiopulmonary strength. If you’re looking to lose weight, incorporating them into your workout routine is a must.”—Kit Rich, celebrity trainer and co-owner of SHIFT by Dana Perri


I am still making “strength” gains (maybe not specifically muscle, more on that later), but feel I am losing some LBM – not the end of the world I suppose. BUT, based on my current weight loss, it seems I am still about four months (give or take) away from hitting my “desired” bulking starting point of somewhere around14%. I was going to shoot even lower, but I think another five months of deficit will just be too much, given the type of training I do (squats, presses, deadlifts, etc.) and that I might start to suffer being in a deficit for so long (joints, maybe stalls in progress, who knows). So, I guess my main question is, if you were me, what would you do? Increase the deficit at the expense of muscle now, or keep on with my current deficit and drag this out at my current pace?
76. Pack Workout Clothes When You Travel – Bringing your workout clothes can help motivate you to workout when you travel. All it takes is 10 minutes to get a solid bodyweight workout in your hotel room. Alternatively, you could training in your hotel gym if they have some weights, or even go for a jog outside. Also, consider bringing a jump rope with you for an intense cardio workout in just minutes. And don’t forget to bring your workout shoes.

There are plenty of fun ways to get moving and exercise. The key is figuring out what you find fun and then going and doing it. Many find classes like cycling, Zumba, hip hop, step, boot camp to be great fun, while others find their fun hitting the trails, playing tennis, biking, swimming, or even just walking with their dog. Sometimes a personal trainer, a friend, or even an online program can make any format of fitness fun as well. Be open minded and try everything you can. You won't be disappointed.


Listen up: Skipping meals will not make you lose weight faster. If a hectic day makes a sit-down meal impossible, stash an energy bar or a piece of fruit in your car or tote, keep snacks in your office desk drawer, and make a point of getting up to grab a nosh — anything that will keep you from going hungry! Going long periods of time without food does double-duty harm on our healthy eating efforts by both slowing down your metabolism, and priming you for another binge later in the day. (Think: You've skipped breakfast and lunch, so you're ready to takedown a whole turkey by dinner!) Make it your mission to eat three meals and two snacks every day, and don't wait longer than three to four hours without eating. Set a "snack alarm" on your phone if needed.
"Protein is great for fat loss. It helps build and preserve lean muscle tissue and can increase the amount of calories you burn. It’s also a great source of energy that helps you feel fuller for longer, so you’re less tempted to snack. Good sources include chicken breast, tuna, eggs, milk and chickpeas. And if you’re finding it difficult to avoid snacks that are high in carbohydrates, try substituting them for protein shakes or bars. Remember also to opt for the lean sources of protein because some sources can be high in saturated fat."
Eating healthier takes a little more time and a little more money. When you're not focused on being health conscious, you can easily satisfy your hunger by going through a drive-thru or grabbing something from the vending machine. When you are focused on your health, or a specific fitness goal like weight loss, you're better off to prepare your own food than to eat out, making it a more time-consuming process, especially if you live somewhere like a food desert.
So I just came across this after reading another article on this site. It was about how muscles burn fat. Anyways, I like what I read because that’s exactly how I’ve been doing. Simple and easy. No complicated theories. However, the one theory that always haunts me is the “starvation mode” theory. I’m sure you’ve come across it. So, is it true that if I create a huge calorie deficit, my body will simply go into starvation mode and and use what it needs and store the rest thinking it will “starve”? Please correct me if I’m wrong with regards to the theory. I could have got it wrong all this time lol.

(I put myself down as lightly active since im a recovering couch potato haha. I walk abt 20 mins almost every evening & “actually” exercise in my house in addition to my housework. And im so excited, i have to tell the world! I’m up to two pushups! Lol :p from zero to two is pretty crazy :p and im very encouraged by what my body is already showing me it IS actually capable of doing haha :p

1 Reference for 5%: Blackburn G. (1995). Effect of degree of weight loss on health benefits. Obesity Research 3: 211S-216S. Reference for 10%: NIH, NHLBI Obesity Education Initiative. Clinical Guidelines on the Identification, Evaluation, and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults. Available online: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/guidelines/obesity/ob_gdlns.pdf [PDF-1.25MB]

24. Try A Group Fitness Class – Are you competitive? Do you work out harder when other people are around? Group fitness classes are a great way to get motivated, challenge yourself, and meet active people. Try boxing or muay thai, TRX, brazilian jiu jitsu, salsa dancing, parkour, rock climbing, and fitness bootcamps. In bigger cities, you could even try circus classes or train like an American Ninja Warrior. Find a class you like and go to it every week.


Get involved in a sport. The great part about sports is that they're competitive. Competition makes us push ourselves harder than we would have by ourselves, for the most part. You may be thinking: I'm not good at any sports, or I'm not comfortable doing any sports. Just remember that people respect other who try hard and who respect themselves. If you think doing soccer, basketball, or swimming would be fun and keep you engaged, then go for it. Let your competitive streak burn the calories for you.
Spoon Guru nutritionist Isabel Butler (MSc, ANutr) recommends that “the best way to reduce weight and maintain the weight loss is by simply eating a balanced and healthy diet, without refusing yourself particular foods… If you do cut out foods, you need to make sure your diet is still balanced and you are getting the nutrients your body needs from other sources.”  
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